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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a common datacollection with detecting mechanisms for a variety of submissions, including environmental monitoring, agriculture, health, military, and smart transportation. Every sensor node gathers information from its surroundings and transmits it to the Base Station via a wireless link, either single-hop or multi-hop. The main energy ingestion factor in the network is dominated by the data collection and forwarding capabilities of the sensor nodes. Designing energy-efficient protocols is a significant topic of research because many sensor nodes are outfitted with low-power batteries that are challenging to replace. Various routing methods are suggested and looked into to address this issue. The main goals of hierarchical-based routing in WSNs are preserving the residual energy of each sensor node, extending the network lifetime, and assuring communication among the sensor nodes. In this study, an attempt is made to evaluate the various hierarchical routing protocols. The majority of these sensor nodes, known as cluster-head (CH) or leaders, are in charge of gathering and processing data before sending it to the sink, while other nodes, known as member nodes, are in charge of sensing the sensor field and sending the sensing data to the head nodes. Head nodes selection is done in the first layer of the two-layer hierarchy-based routing architecture, and routing is done in the second layer. Picking a suitable hierarchical routing protocol is crucial besides challenging issues. The paper’s main objective is to evaluate several recently created hierarchical-based routing protocols in WSNs, which were extended to include other published routing protocols including The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering and is extended to other presented routing protocols like Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS), Energy Efficient PEGASIS-Based Algorithm (EEPB), Hierarchal PEGASIS, PEGASIS Double CH, Improved EEPB, and Mobile sink improved energy-efficient PEGASIS-based routing protocol.
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